What smart transportation systems for a better world ?

# 01/03/2017 à 21:35 Alperen ALTINTAS

Smart Transportation Sysyems For A Better World
Over the last five decades, the number of the vehicles are growing rapidly. This increase in the number of the vehicles mostly depends on the increasing population and more comfortable transportation demand. Increasing vehicle number affects human life particularly in the urban areas because the people need more and more, to move rapidly between different places. As a result of these, traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and more vehicle emission pollutant occur. Implementation safety systems and construction of new roads seem to be a practical solution for these problems. However, these solutions are not exact solutions. There are five main transport mode on the world such as airway, road, rail, maritime and inland waterways. In order to create a permanent solution, people should be encouraged to use airway, rail and waterways for their personal travels. For the freight transportations railway or maritime should be used to reduce the load on the land roads. Public transportation should also be encouraged especially for road transportations in urban areas. Additionally, intelligent transportation systems should be improved and used effectively.
The greatest advantage of the railway transport is that it is the most dependable mode of transport as it is the least affected by weather conditions such as rains, fog etc. compared to other modes of transport. The rail transport is better organised than any other form of transport. It has fixed routes and schedules. Its service is more certain, uniform and regular as compared to other modes of transport. Its speed over long distances is more than any other mode of transport, except airways. Thus, it is the best choice for long distance traffic. Railway transport is economical, quicker and best suited for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances. It is a cheaper mode of transport as compared to other modes of transport. Most of the working expenses of railways are in the nature of fixed costs. Every increase in the railway traffic is followed by a decrease in the average cost. Rail transport is economical in the use of labour also as one driver and one guard are sufficient to carry much more load than the motor transport. Railway is the safest form of transport. The chances of accidents and breakdowns of railways are minimum as compared to other modes of transport. Moreover, the traffic can be protected from the exposure to sun, rains, snow etc.
Compared with trucks, railways and airplanes, maritime transportation is an inexpensive means of transporting goods, especially bulk commodities.Maritime shipping is a fuel-efficient method for transporting heavy goods, making it cost-effective for moving bulk commodities over long distances. A ship can move one ton of cargo 500 miles on one gallon of fuel, making maritime transportation much more fuel-efficient than other modes of transportation. A "thousand-footer" can carry the equivalent cargo of 7 one hundred-car trains and 2,800 twenty-five ton trucks. That ship could also carry enough grain to make bread for all 8,000,000 residents of New York city for a month! Their fuel efficiency and cargo capacity make ships an ideal method of transporting bulk commodities across the Great Lakes region and around the world. Shipping produces air pollutant emissions. Ships use less fuel than trucks and trains and thus produce less carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global climate change. In addition, ships emit lower levels of other air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur than do trucks and trains.
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are vital to increase safety and tackle Europe's growing emission and congestion problems. They can make transport safer, more efficient and more sustainable by applying various information and communication technologies to all modes of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the integration of existing technologies can create new services. ITS are keys to support jobs and growth in the transport sector. ITS is comprised of a number of technologies, including information processing, communications, control, electronics. Joining these technologies to our transportation system will save lives, save time, and save money. There are several useful ITS technology such as autonomous vehicle, red light camera, ramp meter, transit signal priority, traffic signal coordination, traveller information system. Autonomous vehicle, which is a driveless vehicle, is capable to reduce the accidents caused by driver faults. Traffic signals on freeway ramp meters alternate between red and green signals to control the flow of vehicles entering the freeway. Metering rates can be altered based on freeway traffic conditions. Red light camera detect a motor vehicle that passes over sensors in the pavement after a traffic signal has turned red. The sensors connect to computers in high-speed cameras, which take two photographs of the violation. Typically, the first photo is taken of the front of the vehicle when it enters the intersection, and the second photo is taken of the rear of the vehicle when the vehicle is in the intersection. Law enforcement officials review the photograph, and a citation is mailed to the registered owner of the vehicle. Traffic signal coordination provides the ability to synchronize multiple intersections to enhance the operation of one or more directional movements in a system. Some examples include arterial streets, downtown networks, and closely spaced intersections such as diamond interchanges. Transit signal priority gives special treatment to transit vehicles at signalized intersections. Transit signal priority systems use sensors to detect approaching transit vehicles and alter signal timings to improve transit performance. For example, some systems extend the duration of green signals for public transportation vehicles when necessary. Because transit vehicles can hold many people, giving priority to transit can potentially increase the person throughput of an intersection. Traveler information systems are multimodal and support many categories of drivers and travelers. Traveler information applications use a variety of technologies, including Internet websites, telephone hotlines, and television and radio, to allow users to make informed decisions regarding trip departures, routes, and mode of travel.

There are 10984 km railway network in Turkey and its’ 2336 km are electrified. There are daily regular passenger trains all through the network. The goverment has started an investment program of building 5.000 km high-speed lines until 2023. By February 2014, three high speed train routes are running. Ankara-Eskişehir, Ankara-Konya, Eskişehir-Konya and İstanbul-Ankara. Contstruction of the high speed train routes of Ankara-İzmir and Ankara –Sivas are ongoing. It was planned to start train services in these routes until 2019. The freight transportation in the Turkey is mostly conducted with railway. Turkey also appreciates the railway in urban transportation. Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in Istanbul. It comprises a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus strait, and the modernization of existing suburban railway lines along the Sea of Marmara from Halkalı on the European side to Gebze on the Asian side. Marmaray started to service at 2013. The third Bosphorus Bridge “Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge” was olso opened to traffic at 2016. The significant specification of this bridge is that it enables both land road and railway transportation between two continents. Additionally, there are many applications of Intelligent Transportation Systems on Turkey roads. In order to orginize traffic and stop congestion and accidents, several intelligent transportation systems are used in Turkey roads such as red light camera system, Traveler information system, traffic coordination system.

Finally, taken into consideration smart transportation systems in Turkey and all over world, it is believed that the developed transportation systems make the life easier, more comfortable and help the environment become cleaner compared to traditional transportation systems. The smart transportation systems also help people spend less time for travelling and thanks to smart transportation, traffic accidents are getting less so smart transportation systems make life safer ,as well. To sum up, the better transportation makes the world better.

Répondre à ce message

Code incorrect ! Essayez à nouveau